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The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English. This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca.
However, some glitches such as mojibake incorrect display of some languages' characters still remain. In an American study in , the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate such as email.
Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos.
Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. Several neologisms exist that refer to Internet users: Netizen as in "citizen of the net"  refers to those actively involved in improving online communities , the Internet in general or surrounding political affairs and rights such as free speech ,   Internaut refers to operators or technically highly capable users of the Internet,   digital citizen refers to a person using the Internet in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation.
The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections.
The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, datacards , handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly.
Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available.
Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.
Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies , through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities , to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar.
For distance education , help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere.
The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education.
Further, the Internet allows universities, in particular, researchers from the social and behavioral sciences, to conduct research remotely via virtual laboratories, with profound changes in reach and generalizability of findings as well as in communication between scientists and in the publication of results.
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills have made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software.
Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form.
An example of this is the free software movement , which has produced, among other things, Linux , Mozilla Firefox , and OpenOffice.
Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking website, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day.
Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members.
Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work.
Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.
Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread.
The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily from any access point. Access may be with computer security , i.
This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries.
An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth.
These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world.
Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.
An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing , or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure virtual private network VPN connection on the Internet.
This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office.
It has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare,  because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes.
Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to pursue their personal interests. People use chat , messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals.
Social networking websites such as Facebook , Twitter , and Myspace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others.
It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections.
YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. While social networking sites were initially for individuals only, today they are widely used by businesses and other organizations to promote their brands, to market to their customers and to encourage posts to " go viral ".
A risk for both individuals and organizations writing posts especially public posts on social networking websites, is that especially foolish or controversial posts occasionally lead to an unexpected and possibly large-scale backlash on social media from other Internet users.
This is also a risk in relation to controversial offline behavior, if it is widely made known. The nature of this backlash can range widely from counter-arguments and public mockery, through insults and hate speech , to, in extreme cases, rape and death threats.
The online disinhibition effect describes the tendency of many individuals to behave more stridently or offensively online than they would in person.
A significant number of feminist women have been the target of various forms of harassment in response to posts they have made on social media, and Twitter in particular has been criticised in the past for not doing enough to aid victims of online abuse.
For organizations, such a backlash can cause overall brand damage , especially if reported by the media. However, this is not always the case, as any brand damage in the eyes of people with an opposing opinion to that presented by the organization could sometimes be outweighed by strengthening the brand in the eyes of others.
Furthermore, if an organization or individual gives in to demands that others perceive as wrong-headed, that can then provoke a counter-backlash.
Some websites, such as Reddit , have rules forbidding the posting of personal information of individuals also known as doxxing , due to concerns about such postings leading to mobs of large numbers of Internet users directing harassment at the specific individuals thereby identified.
In particular, the Reddit rule forbidding the posting of personal information is widely understood to imply that all identifying photos and names must be censored in Facebook screenshots posted to Reddit.
However, the interpretation of this rule in relation to public Twitter posts is less clear, and in any case, like-minded people online have many other ways they can use to direct each other's attention to public social media posts they disagree with.
Children also face dangers online such as cyberbullying and approaches by sexual predators , who sometimes pose as children themselves.
Children may also encounter material which they may find upsetting, or material which their parents consider to be not age-appropriate. Due to naivety, they may also post personal information about themselves online, which could put them or their families at risk unless warned not to do so.
The most popular social networking websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, commonly forbid users under the age of However, these policies are typically trivial to circumvent by registering an account with a false birth date, and a significant number of children aged under 13 join such sites anyway.
Social networking sites for younger children, which claim to provide better levels of protection for children, also exist. The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic.
Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. While online gaming has been around since the s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer.
Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies.
Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness.
Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: Overseas supporters provide funding and support; domestic practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders.
Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in the collective study via email, on-line chat rooms, and web-based message boards.
Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a study by Peninsula Business Services.
Carr believes that Internet use has other effects on individuals , for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.
Electronic business e-business encompasses business processes spanning the entire value chain: E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners.
While much has been written of the economic advantages of Internet-enabled commerce , there is also evidence that some aspects of the Internet such as maps and location-aware services may serve to reinforce economic inequality and the digital divide.
Author Andrew Keen , a long-time critic of the social transformations caused by the Internet, has recently focused on the economic effects of consolidation from Internet businesses.
Telecommuting is the performance within a traditional worker and employer relationship when it is facilitated by tools such as groupware , virtual private networks , conference calling , videoconferencing , and voice over IP VOIP so that work may be performed from any location, most conveniently the worker's home.
It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows workers to communicate over long distances, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost.
As broadband Internet connections become commonplace, more workers have adequate bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home to their corporate intranet and internal communication networks.
Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries.
Queens , New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool.
The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing for carrying out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism , most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring.
Many have understood the Internet as an extension of the Habermasian notion of the public sphere , observing how network communication technologies provide something like a global civic forum.
However, incidents of politically motivated Internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies.
The spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities, which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals.
Websites, such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving , allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice.
A popular twist on Internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes. Kiva pioneered this concept in , offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding.
Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers.
Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity, in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves.
However, the recent spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has made genuine international person-to-person philanthropy increasingly feasible.
In , the US-based nonprofit Zidisha tapped into this trend to offer the first person-to-person microfinance platform to link lenders and borrowers across international borders without intermediaries.
Members can fund loans for as little as a dollar, which the borrowers then use to develop business activities that improve their families' incomes while repaying loans to the members with interest.
Borrowers access the Internet via public cybercafes, donated laptops in village schools, and even smart phones, then create their own profile pages through which they share photos and information about themselves and their businesses.
As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages.
This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.
Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information.
Malicious software used and spread on the Internet includes computer viruses which copy with the help of humans, computer worms which copy themselves automatically, software for denial of service attacks , ransomware , botnets , and spyware that reports on the activity and typing of users.
Usually, these activities constitute cybercrime. Defense theorists have also speculated about the possibilities of cyber warfare using similar methods on a large scale.
The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.
Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.
Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are traveling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs.
A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean.
The large amount of data gathered from packet capturing requires surveillance software that filters and reports relevant information, such as the use of certain words or phrases, the access of certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with certain parties.
Some governments, such as those of Burma , Iran , North Korea , the Mainland China , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates restrict access to content on the Internet within their territories, especially to political and religious content, with domain name and keyword filters.
In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities.
While this list of forbidden resources is supposed to contain only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret.
Many free or commercially available software programs, called content-control software are available to users to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit access by children to pornographic material or depiction of violence.
As the Internet is a heterogeneous network, the physical characteristics, including for example the data transfer rates of connections, vary widely.
It exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions.
Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the submarine cable disruption.
Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia.
In , researchers estimated the energy used by the Internet to be between and GW, less than two percent of the energy used by humanity. This estimate included the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated million laptops, a billion smart phones and million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic.
This article incorporates text from a free content work. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see Wikipedia: Adding open license text to Wikipedia.
For other uses, see Internet disambiguation. Not to be confused with the World Wide Web. An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet.
List of countries by number of Internet users and List of countries by Internet connection speeds.
Global Internet usage and English in computing. Global digital divide and Digital divide. Internet censorship , Culture of fear , and Mass surveillance.
Computer and network surveillance. Signals intelligence and Mass surveillance. Internet censorship and Internet freedom.
Culture of fear and Great Firewall. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved July 31, Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed.
Subscription or UK public library membership required. World Wide Web Consortium. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 13 August A link is a connection from one Web resource to another.
Although a simple concept, the link has been one of the primary forces driving the success of the Web. This happens frequently deep in the crust where the rock is already highly compressed.
Superheavy elements quickly form and then fission and decay into such elements as uranium and lead. The heat released propels the plasma and new isotopes along the channels.
As the channels contract, flow velocities increase. The charged particles and new elements are transported to sites where minerals are grown, one atom at a time.
Items a and b should accompany item c. The shock collapse mechanism is similar to a technique, called magnetized target fusion MTF , planned for a fusion reactor.
Two hundred pistons, each weighing more than a ton, will surround the sphere. The pistons will simultaneously send converging shock waves into the center of the sphere at meters per second.
There, the plasma will be compressed to the point where heavy hydrogen fuses into helium and releases an immense amount of heat.
This cycle will be repeated every second. Unfortunately, an MTF reactor must expend energy operating pistons which, with all their moving parts each subject to failure , must fire almost simultaneously—within a millionth of a second.
However, during the flood, the electrical, lightninglike surges produced thin channels of hot, high-pressure plasma that expanded the surrounding rock.
Then, that rock rebounded back onto plasma-filled channels, producing shock collapse —and fusion.
With shock collapse, the channel walls collapsed onto the plasma from all directions—at trillions of points. With MTF, hundreds of moving parts must act nearly simultaneously for the collapse to occur at one point.
The resulting spongelike openings were then filled with SCW. During the flood, that pore water provided an enormous surface area for slowing and capturing neutrons and other subatomic particles.
For weeks, all this heat expanded and further pressurized the SCW in the spongelike channels in the lower crust, slowly forcing that water back into the subterranean chamber.
Therefore, higher than normal pressures in the subterranean chamber continuously accelerated the escaping subterranean water, much like a water gun.
Liquid quickly evaporates from the surface of the myriad of microscopic droplets floating in the supercritical vapor. As more heat was added to the escaping SCW, the fountains accelerated even more.
With that greater acceleration came greater expansion and cooling. Nuclear energy primarily became electrical energy and then kinetic energy. Had the nuclear energy produced heat only, much of the earth would have melted.
Extremely Cold Fountains A fluid flowing in a uniform channel expands if the fluid particles accelerate as they pass some point in the flow.
For example, as a water droplet begins its fall over the edge of a waterfall, it will move farther and farther from a second droplet right behind it This is because the first droplet had a head start in its acceleration.
Refrigerators and air conditioners work on this principle. A gas is compressed and therefore heated. The heat is then transferred to a colder body.
Finally, the fluid vents accelerates and expands through a nozzle as a fountain, becomes cold, and cools your refrigerator or home.
The fountains of the great deep, instead of expanding from a few hundred pounds per square inch psi into a small, closed container as happens in your refrigerator or air conditioner , expanded explosively from , psi into the cold vacuum of space!
Remember, two astounding energy sources accelerated the fountains to at least 32 miles per second within seconds: If you have read pages — and understand the enormous power of the fountains of the great deep, can you spot the error in the following paragraph?
Page states that the fountains of the great deep contained 1, trillion hydrogen bombs worth of kinetic energy—or more than 7.
We have all seen a performer jerk a table cloth out from under plates and goblets resting on a beautifully set table.
The plates and goblets barely moved, because they have inertia. What would happen if the performer yanked the table cloth out even faster?
The plates would move even less. What would happen if the cloth had been jerked a trillion times faster? No plate movements would be detected.
The horizontal acceleration of the table cloth is analogous to the upward acceleration of the fountains of the great deep. Because the atmosphere has mass, and therefore inertia, the faster the fountains jetted, the less the bulk of the atmosphere would have been disturbed.
Supercritical water in the subterranean chamber at the base of the fountains was extremely hot. However, that water expanded and cooled as it accelerated upward—becoming extremely cold, almost absolute zero.
Heat transfer through gases is quite slow, so probably little heat was transferred from the somewhat warmer atmosphere to the colder, rapidly moving fountains.
The current evolutionary theory for the formation of chemical elements and radioisotopes evolved from earlier theories. Each began by assuming a big bang and considering what it might produce.
Years later, fatal flaws were found. Few heavy elements could have been produced, because the expansion rate was too great, and the heavier the nuclei became, the more their positive charges would repel each other.
In , the follow-on theory assumed that a big bang produced only neutrons. Supposedly, protons and neutrons slowly merged to become heavier and heavier elements.
Later, that theory was abandoned when it was realized that any nucleus with a total of five or eight nucleons protons or neutrons will decay and lose one or more nucleons in about a second or less.
The next theory said that a big bang produced only hydrogen. Much later, stars evolved. They fused this hydrogen into helium, which usually has four nucleons two protons and two neutrons.
If three helium nuclei quickly merged, producing a nucleus weighing 12 AMU, these barriers at 5 and 8 AMU could be jumped.
This theory was abandoned when calculations showed that the entire process, especially the production of enough helium inside stars, would take too long.
A fourth theory assumed that two helium nuclei and several neutrons might merge when helium-rich stars exploded as supernovas.
This theory was abandoned when calculations showed that just to produce the required helium, stars needed to generate much more heat than they could produce in their lifetimes.
But how that triple-alpha process could happen is a mystery. But exactly how each of these reactions happens at a fundamental level remains unexplained [because all the colliding positively charged nuclei would repel each other].
This mechanism has not been verified experimentally or computationally. Chemical elements had to form somehow. This mechanism, as with all prior guesses that were taught widely and are now rejected, is born out of desperation, because creation, the alternative to chemicals evolving, is unacceptable to many.
Even if this problem did not exist, only chemical elements lighter than 60 AMU could be formed—by adding more protons, neutrons, and alpha particles but only if stars had somehow formed.
Pages 29 — 37 explain why stars, galaxies, and planets would not form from the debris of a big bang. But fusion inside stars must stop when nuclei reach about 26 AMU.
How the 68 other naturally-occurring chemical elements those heavier than iron were produced is not known. We are all made of starstuff. The big bang created hydrogen, helium, and a little bit of lithium and other light atoms.
But everything else—the carbon, oxygen, and other elements that make up animals, plants, and Earth itself—was made by stars.
Temperatures hundreds of times greater than those occurring inside stars are needed. Therefore, the latest chemical evolution theory assumes that all the heavier chemical elements are produced by supernovas—and then expelled into the vacuum of space.
By this thinking, radioactive atoms have been present throughout the earth since it, the Sun, and the rest of the solar system evolved from scattered supernova debris.
Observations and computer simulations do not support this idea that supernovas produced all the heavy chemical elements.
The extreme explosive power of supernovas should easily scatter and fragment nuclei, not drive nuclei together. Remember, nuclei heavier than iron are so large that the strong force can barely hold on to their outer protons.
Also, the theoretical understanding of how stars and the solar system formed is seriously flawed. See pages 29 — Oil—and Mountains of Salt—All in the Right Places In the centuries before the flood, the supercritical water SCW in the subterranean chamber dissolved certain minerals in the granite crust, such as quartz.
When the flood began, the fluttering crust produced piezoelectric surges that generated nuclear energy—an amount equivalent to about 1, trillion 1-megaton hydrogen bombs!
Instead, it was generated gradually and dissipated as heat over many weeks within the billion-cubic-mile granite crust.
Therefore, heating of the SCW in each channel steadily built up astounding pressures in the subterranean water chamber.
That pressure accelerated, at hypersonic velocities, all the fountains of the great deep out of the globe-encircling rupture.
Were the portions of the mile-thick granite crust far from the pressure-relieving rupture able to contain those internal pressures?
You will recall the description on page and Endnote 30 on page of mountains of salt—some taller than Mount Everest!
They rise from the 1,foot-thick mother salt layer that lies up to 30, feet below the floor of the Gulf of Mexico. An even thicker mother salt layer is under the Mediterranean Sea.
Page explained how tidal pumping, centuries before the flood, steadily increased temperatures in the subterranean water.
This phenomenon, discovered in and explained on pages — , is called out-salting. The subterranean water that escaped up through those large openings left by the bursting crust swept wet salt lying along the subterranean chamber floor toward the base of those holes, onto what are now the floors of the Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea.
Dry salt resists movement about as much as sand or dirt, but wet salt flows as easily as warm putty. You can demonstrate this by pouring a tablespoon of salt into the palm of your hand.
Then, with a finger on your other hand, feel how friction resists movement in dry salt. Now place a few drops of water onto that salt and feel how slippery and fluid-like the salt becomes.
Over time, thousands of feet of dense sediments were then deposited on top of the less-dense, mushy mother salt layers— an unstable condition.
Mother salt layers flow easily, so slight disturbances cause the less dense salt to flow up through the denser sediments. Geophysicists exploring for oil know that large oil fields are often found near massive salt deposits.
The hydroplate theory explains this. But first, consider two recent examples of the many unbelievably large salt deposits next to vast oil fields.
During the early stages of the flood, some sediments loaded with organic material especially forests ripped up by the flood waters were swept off the edge of the hydroplates and onto the exposed chamber floor.
Evidence of this is seen in Figure 57 on page As the hydroplates settled onto the chamber floor, the scouring ability of the escaping subterranean water increased greatly, 98 so large amounts of the precipitated salt were swept out of the chamber and on top of the organic material deposited weeks earlier.
Since then, SCW escaping up from the former chamber floor, has dissolved the organic material, forming various hydrocarbons.
We see SCW doing this today on the sea floor. The mile-wide square in the top map is expanded in the bottom map to show a detailed three-dimensional view of the pockmarked floor in the Gulf of Mexico.
Each pixel covers an area on the sea floor the size of a typical home. Because the mushy mother salt layer is so fluid, it eventually pooled at the lowest possible depths.
Early during the flood, the pulsating, high-pressure subterranean water broke through the granite crust. Sediments almost 30, feet thick were then deposited on top of the 1,foot-thick mother salt layer.
Weight imbalances forced the more buoyant salt to rise through the denser still mushy sediments as salt domes—mountains of salt, some taller than Mount Everest.
Depressions formed in other places as the salt that was directly below the pockmarks flowed laterally and fed into the bases of nearby, rising salt domes.
Huge salt deposits also underlie the Mediterranean seafloor. In the s, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe was expanding. This meant that the farther back we look in time, the smaller—and hotter—the universe was.
For some time after the big bang about All this was confirmed in when Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation—the afterglow of the big bang.
Both received a Nobel Prize for their discovery. Because hydrogen is easily the most abundant element in the universe today, it is reasonable to assume that all elements and their isotopes evolved from hydrogen 1 H.
That ended 20 minutes after the big bang when the universe had expanded enough to stop helium production. The amount of deuterium we see also points to the big bang as the only possible source, because too much deuterium exists—especially here on earth and in comets—to have been made in stars or by processes operating today.
Deuterium or heavy hydrogen is a fragile isotope that cannot survive the high temperatures achieved at the centers of stars.
Stars do not make deuterium; they only destroy it. So, the big bang produced the three lightest chemical elements: Later, after stars evolved, the next 23 lightest chemical elements evolved deep in stars.
Hundreds of millions of years later, all other chemical elements must have been produced by supernovas, because temperatures a hundred times greater than those in stars are required.
In , lightning struck and radially collapsed part of a hollow, copper lightning rod shown in this drawing Barraclough at the University of Sydney then showed that a strong pinching effect occurs when powerful electrical currents travel along close, parallel paths.
Bennett provided a more rigorous analysis. Patents have since been granted for using the Z-pinch to squeeze atomic nuclei together in fusion reactors.
In a plasma flow, trillions upon trillions of electrical charges flow along close, parallel paths—positive charges in one direction and negative charges electrons in the opposite direction.
In fact, the magnetic field created by all moving charges continually squeeze or Z-pinch all charged particles toward the central axis.
During the flood, gigantic piezoelectric voltages produced electrical breakdown in the fluttering granite crust, so each long flow channel self-focused onto its axis.
In that flow, nuclei, stripped of some electrons, were drawn closer and closer together by the Z-pinch. Normally, their Coulomb forces would repel each other, but the electrons flowing in the opposite directions tended to neutralize those repulsive forces.
Nuclei that collided or nearly collided were then pulled together by the extremely powerful strong force. Fusion occurred , and even superheavy elements formed.
Thousands of experiments at the Proton Laboratory have demonstrated this phenomenon. Because superheavy elements are so unstable, they quickly fission split or decay.
Although fusion of nuclei lighter than iron released large amounts of nuclear energy heat , the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbed most of that heat and the heat released by fission and decay.
This also produced heavy elements that were not on earth before the flood elements heavier than lead, such as bismuth, polonium, radon, radium, thorium, uranium, etc.
The greater the heat, the more heavy elements formed and absorbed that heat. This production was accompanied by a heavy flux of neutrons, so nuclei absorbed enough neutrons to make them nearly stable.
This is why the ratios of the various isotopes of a particular element are generally fixed. These fixed ratios are seen throughout the earth, because the flood and flux of neutrons was global.
It was truly gigantic, amounting to a directed energy release of 1, trillion 1-megaton hydrogen bombs! The steady disposal of that energy was equally impressive and gives us a vivid picture of the power of the fountains of the great deep and the forces that launched meteoroids and the material that later merged in outer space to became comets, asteroids, and TNOs.
Although our minds can barely grasp these magnitudes, we all know about the sudden power of hydrogen bombs. However, if that energy is generated over weeks, few know how it can be removed in weeks.
That will now be explained. Heat Removed by Water. Flow surface boiling removes huge amounts of heat, especially under high pressures.
At MIT, I conducted extensive experiments that removed more heat, per unit area, than is coming off the Sun, per unit area, in the same time period.
This was done without melting the metal within which those large amounts of heat were electrically generated. In flow surface boiling, as in a pan of water boiling on your stove, bubbles erupt from microscopic pockets of vapor trapped between the liquid and cracks and valleys pits in the surface of hot solids, such as rocks, metals, or a pan on your stove.
The flowing liquid strips the growing bubbles from the solid. Sucked behind each bubble is hot liquid that was next to the hot solid.
Relatively cold liquid then circulates down and cools the hot solid. If you could submerge a balloon deep in a swimming pool and jerk the balloon several balloon diameters in a few milliseconds, you would see a similar powerful flow throughout the pool.
Once the bubble is ripped away from the solid, liquid rushes in and tries to fill the pit from which the bubble grew a millisecond earlier.
Almost never can the pit be completely filled, so another microscopic vapor pocket, called a nucleation site , is born, ready to grow another bubble.
The thin film of liquid surrounding the growing bubble can be thought of as the skin of a balloon. With proper lighting, the hot liquid next to the solid can be seen jetting into the relatively cool flowing liquid.
Boiling removes heat from a hot solid by several powerful mechanisms. In one process, the surface tension surrounding a growing bubble propels the hot liquid away from the hot solid, so cooler liquid can circulate in and cool the solid.
If cooler liquid is also flowing parallel to and beyond the hot, thermal boundary layer next to the solid, as it would have been with water flowing in vertical channels throughout the crust during and shortly after the flood, the tops of the growing bubbles would have been even cooler.
Therefore, the surface tension at the tops of the bubbles would have been stronger yet, so heat removal by jetting would have been even more powerful.
A dangerous situation, called burnout , arises if the bubble density becomes so great that vapor an effective insulator momentarily blankets the hot solid, preventing most of the generated heat from escaping into the cooler liquid.
With my high-pressure test apparatus at MIT, a small explosion would occur with hot liquid squirting out violently. Fortunately, I was behind a protective wall.
Although it took days of work to clean up the mess and rebuild my test equipment, that was progress, because I then knew one more of the many temperature-pressure combinations that would cause burnout at a particular flow velocity for any liquid and solid.
During the flood, subsurface water removed even more heat, because the fluid was supercritical water SCW.
The liquid droplets, rapidly bouncing off the solid, remove heat without raising the temperature too much. The heat energy gained by SCW simply increases the pressure, velocity, and number of droplets, all of which then increase the heat removal.
When the flood began, and for weeks afterward, almost all that energy became kinetic, as explained in Figure My granddaughter, Laney, demonstrates, admittedly in a simplified form, how great amounts of nuclear energy steadily accelerated the fountains of the great deep during the early weeks of the flood.
Laney adds energy by pushing on the plunger. The pressure does not build up excessively and rupture the tube; instead, the pressure continuously accelerates a jet of water—a fountain.
Sometimes the jet hits her poor grandfather. But that pressure increase was transferred through those spongelike channels in the lower crust down into the subterranean water chamber, so the increased pressure continuously accelerated the water flowing out from under each hydroplate.
Therefore, the velocities of the fountains became gigantic while the pressures in the channels did not grow excessively and destroy even more of the crust.
That energy expelled water and rocky debris even into outer space. Also, if Laney could push the plunger hard enough to accelerate that much water, not for inches and 1 second, but for 60 miles and for weeks, and if the pressure she applied to the plunger slightly increased the gigantic preflood pressure in the subterranean chamber, she too could expel water and large rocks into outer space.
Although atmospheric turbulence must have been great, would the friction from the fountains against the atmosphere overheat the atmosphere?
Nor would a bullet fired through a piece of cardboard set the cardboard on fire—and the fountains were much faster than a bullet. Also, recognize how cold the fountains became.
Tension cracks are suddenly pulled apart, just as when a stretched rubber band snaps, its two ends rapidly separate. Therefore, once the fountains broke through the atmosphere, only the sides of the fountains—a relatively thin boundary layer—made contact with and were slowed by the atmosphere.
Besides, the fountains pulsated at the same frequency as the fluttering crust—about a cycle every 30 minutes. To demonstrate this property of inertia, which even gases have, give a quick horizontal jerk on a tablecloth and notice how plates on the tablecloth remain motionless.
To appreciate the large velocities in the fountains, we must understand the speeds achievable if large forces can steadily accelerate material over long distances.
As a boy, my friends and I would buy bags of dried peas and put a dozen or so in our mouths for our pea-shooting battles.
We would place one end of a plastic straw in our mouths, insert a pea in the straw with our tongues, and sneak around houses where we would blow peas out the straws and zap each other.
Fortunately, no one lost his eyesight. With a longer straw and a bigger breath, I could have shot faster and farther. Cannons, guns, rifles, mortars, and howitzers use the same principle.
German engineers in World War I recognized that longer gun tubes would, with enough propellant energy , accelerate artillery rounds for a longer duration, fire them faster and farther, and even strike Paris from Germany.
Parisians thought they were being bombed by quiet, high altitude zeppelins dirigibles. If a foot-long gun could launch material at a mile per second, how fast might a mile-long gun tube launch material?
How much kinetic energy might the subterranean water gain by using nuclear energy to steadily accelerate the water horizontally under a hydroplate for hundreds or thousands of miles before reaching the base of the rupture?
There, the water would collide with the oncoming flow, mightily compress, and then elastically rebound upward—the only direction of escape—accelerating straight up at astounding speeds.
Nuclear reactions provided more than enough energy to launch water and rocks into space. Previous Page Next Page. In building a carbon atom from 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons: Earthquakes and Electricity Books have been written describing thousands of strange electrical events that accompanied earthquakes.
Lineaments Rock is strong in compression, but weak in tension. Several possibilities come to mind: But shearing would produce displacements.
One Type of Fusion Reactor The shock collapse mechanism is similar to a technique, called magnetized target fusion MTF , planned for a fusion reactor.
Beneath the floor of the Gulf of Mexico are huge oil reserves. Most people will recall the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. It was the largest marine oil spill in recorded history.
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It lies first under 7, feet of water, then under 10, feet of sand and rocks, and finally under 6, feet of salt—a total of 4. Designed Design Designs Designing Designings by designers designer.
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Each step in this process is demonstrable on a small scale. Calculations and other evidence show that these events happened on a global scale.
Billions of years later, the earth formed from that debris. Few of the theorized steps can be demonstrated experimentally. With that background, new and surprising experimental evidence will become clear.
Next, the two competing theories will be summarized: Readers can then judge for themselves which theory better explains the evidence.
First, we need to understand a few terms concerning the atom. Descriptions and models of the atom differ.
What is certain is that no model proposed so far is completely correct. Let us think of an atom as simply a nucleus surrounded by one or more shells—like layers of an onion.
Each shell can hold a certain number of negative charges called electrons. The innermost shell, for example, can hold two electrons. The tightly packed, vibrating nucleus contains protons , each with a positive charge, and neutrons , with no charge.
Protons and neutrons are called nucleons. An atom is small. A nucleus is even smaller. If an atom were the size of a football field, its nucleus—which contains about Electrons are smaller yet.
An electron is to a speck of dust as a speck of dust is to the earth! Atoms of the same chemical element have the same number of protons.
For example, a hydrogen atom has one proton; helium, two; lithium, three; carbon, six; oxygen, eight; iron, 26; gold, 79; and uranium, Today, earth has 94 naturally occurring chemical elements.
A carbon atom, by definition, has exactly To see why an atom weighs less than the sum of its parts, we must understand binding energy.
In building a carbon atom from 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons:. When separate nucleons protons and neutrons are brought together to form a nucleus, a tiny percentage of their mass is instantly converted to a large amount of energy.
That energy usually measured in units of millions of electron volts, or MeV is called binding energy, because an extremely strong force inside the nucleus tightly binds the nucleons together—snaps them powerfully together—producing a burst of heat.
For example, a deuterium hydrogen-2 nucleus contains a proton and a neutron. Its nucleus has a total binding energy of about 2.
If two deuterium nuclei merge to become helium, 2. The gain in binding energy becomes emitted heat. This merging of light nuclei is called fusion.
The Sun derives most of its heat by the fusion of deuterium into helium. The fusion of elements heavier than 60 AMU absorb energy.
Fission is the splitting of heavy nuclei. For example, when uranium fissions, the sum of the binding energies of the fragments is greater than the binding energy of the uranium nucleus, so energy is released.
Fission as well as fusion can be sustained only if energy is released to drive more fission or fusion. When a nucleus forms, a small amount of mass is converted to binding energy , the energy emitted by the nucleus when protons and neutrons bind together.
It is also the energy required to break unbind a nucleus into separate protons and neutrons. The closer the mass of a nucleus is to the mass of an iron or nickel nucleus 60 AMU , the more binding energy that nucleus has per nucleon.
The energy is great, because c 2 is huge. For example, when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, only about milligrams of mass—about one-third the mass of a U.
Nuclear energy is usually released as kinetic energy. The high velocity fragments generate heat as they slow down during multiple collisions.
Stated another way, a very heavy nucleus sometimes splits, a process called fission. Fission may occur when a heavy nucleus is hit by a neutron, or even a high-energy photon particle of light.
When fission happens spontaneously—without being hit—it is a type of decay. When fission occurs, mass is lost and energy is released.
Likewise, when light nuclei merge a process called fusion , mass is lost and energy is released. In an atom bomb, uranium or plutonium nuclei split fission.
In a hydrogen bomb, hydrogen nuclei merge fuse to become helium. Fission inside nuclear reactors produces many free neutrons.
Water is an excellent substance for absorbing the energy of fast neutrons and thereby producing heat, because water is cheap and contains so much hydrogen.
The heat can then boil water to produce steam that spins a turbine and generates electricity. Chemical elements with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are called isotopes.
Every chemical element has several isotopes, although most are seen only briefly in experiments. Carbon, carbon, and carbon are different isotopes of carbon.
All are carbon, because they have 6 protons, but respectively, they have 6, 7, and 8 neutrons—or 12, 13, and 14 nucleons. The number of protons determines the chemical element; the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element.
Most isotopes are radioactive; that is, their vibrating, unstable nuclei sometimes change spontaneously decay , usually by emitting fast, very tiny particles—even photons particles of light called gamma rays.
Each decay, except gamma emission, converts the nucleus into a new isotope, called the daughter. One type of radioactive decay occurs when a nucleus expels an alpha particle —a tight bundle of two protons and two neutrons, identical to the nucleus of a helium atom.
In another type of decay, beta decay , a neutron suddenly emits an electron and becomes a proton. Few scientists realize that on rare occasions heavy nuclei will decay by emitting a carbon nucleus 14 C.
Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes. Only about 65 naturally occurring radioisotopes are known. However, high-energy processes such as those occurring in atomic explosions, atomic accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced about 3, different radioisotopes, including a few previously unknown chemical elements.
Half-lives range from less than a billionth of a second to many millions of trillions of years. Nor have accelerations of up to , g, magnetic fields up to 45, gauss, or changing elevations or chemical concentrations.
However, it was learned as far back as that high pressure could increase decay rates very slightly for at least 14 isotopes.
Also, electron capture rates for a few radioisotopes change in different chemical compounds. Beta decay rates can increase dramatically when atoms are stripped of all their electrons.
This effect was previously unknown, because only electrically neutral atoms had been used in measuring half-lives.
Other radioisotopes seem to be similarly affected. This may be an electrical effect or a consequence of neutrinos 20 flowing from the Sun.
Patents have been awarded to major corporations for electrical devices that claim to accelerate alpha, beta, and gamma decay and thereby decontaminate hazardous nuclear wastes.
However, they have not been shown to work on a large scale. An interesting patent awarded to William A. Barker is described as follows: Radioactive material is placed in or on a Van de Graaff generator where an electric potential of 50, — , volts is applied for at least 30 minutes.
Thus alpha, beta, and gamma particles rapidly escape radioactive nuclei. While these electrical devices may accelerate decay rates, a complete theoretical understanding of them does not yet exist, they are expensive, and they act only on small samples.
However, the common belief that decay rates are constant in all conditions should now be discarded. Different radioisotopes have different leakage rates, or half-lives.
Stable isotopes do not leak; they are not radioactive. Here, we will address more basic issues: Each of the more than 3, known isotopes is defined by two numbers: Think of each isotope as occupying a point on a horizontal P—N coordinate system.
It lies near the diagonal between the P axis and the N axis. Those on the steep slope have half-lives of seconds to billions of years.
Stable isotopes are down on the valley floor. Notice how the valley curves toward the right. A key point to remember: For example, if some powerful compression or the Z-pinch described in Figure on page suddenly merged fused six stable nuclei near point A, the resulting heavy nucleus would briefly lie at point B, where it would quickly decay or fission.
If the valley of stability were straight and did not curve, stable nuclei that fused together would form a stable , heavy nucleus i. Nuclei near C that fission will usually produce neutron-heavy products.
As you will see, because the valley curves, we have radioactivity—another key point to remember. How this happened will be explained later.
We can think of these new isotopes as being scattered high on the sides of the valley of stability. It would be as if a powerful explosion, or some sudden release of energy, blasted rocks up onto the steep sides of a long valley.
Most rocks would quickly roll back down and dislodge somewhat unstable rocks that were only part way up the slope.
Today, rocks rarely roll down the sides of the valley. Later in this chapter, you will see the well-established physical processes that —in less than one hour—greatly accelerated radioactive decay during the flood.
This routine, nondestructive technique can be used to identify chemical elements in an unknown material. Neutrons, usually from a nuclear reactor, bombard the material.
Some nuclei that absorb neutrons become radioactive—are driven up the neutron-heavy side of the valley of stability. When a very massive star begins to run out of hydrogen and other nuclear fuels, it can collapse so suddenly that almost all its electrons are driven into nuclei.
What remains near the center of the gigantic explosion is a dense star, about 10 miles in diameter, composed of neutrons—a neutron star.
Like charges repel each other, so what keeps a nucleus containing many positively charged protons from flying apart?
A poorly understood force inside the nucleus acts over a very short distance to pull protons and, it turns out, neutrons, as well together. Nuclear physicists call this the strong force.
Binding energy, described on page , is the result of work done by the strong force. Two nuclei, pushed toward each other, initially experience an increasing repelling force, called the Coulomb force , because both nuclei have positive charges.
However, if a voltage is accelerating many nuclei in one direction and electrons are flowing between them in the opposite direction, that repelling force is largely neutralized.
Furthermore, both positive and negative flows will produce a reinforcing Z-pinch. If the Z-pinch acts over a broad plasma flow, many nuclei could merge into superheavy nuclei —nuclei much heavier than any chemical element found naturally.
Most merged nuclei would be unstable radioactive and would rapidly decay, because they would lie high on the proton-heavy side of the valley of stability.
While the strong force holds nuclei together and overcomes the repelling Coulomb force, four particular nuclei are barely held together: Slight impacts will cause their decay.
Neutrons in a nucleus rarely decay, but free neutrons those outside a nucleus decay with a half-life of about Why should a neutron surrounded by protons and electrons often have a half-life of millions of years, but, when isolated, have a half-life of minutes?
When an intense electric field strips electrons surrounding certain heavy nuclei, those nuclei become so unstable that their decay rate increases, sometimes a billionfold.
Nuclear Combustion Since February , thousands of sophisticated experiments at the Proton Electrodynamics Research Laboratory Kiev, Ukraine have demonstrated nuclear combustion 31 by producing traces of all known chemical elements and their stable isotopes.
Each experiment used one of 22 separate electrode materials, including copper, silver, platinum, bismuth, and lead, each at least In a typical experiment, the energy of an electron pulse is less than joules roughly 0.
That point, because of the concentrated electrical heating, instantly becomes the center of a tiny sphere of dense plasma.
With a burst of more than 10 18 electrons flowing through the center of this plasma sphere, the surrounding nuclei positive ions implode onto that center.
Compression from this implosion easily overcomes the normal Coulomb repulsion between the positively charged nuclei. The resulting fusion produces superheavy chemical elements , some twice as heavy as uranium and some that last for a few months.
The electrodes ruptured with a flash of light, including x-rays and gamma rays. However, as explained in Figure on page , heat was absorbed by elements heavier than iron that were produced by fusion.
Therefore, little heat was emitted from the entire experiment. The Proton Laboratory, which has received patents in Europe, the United States, and Japan, collaborates with other laboratories that wish to verify results and duplicate experiments.
The focused heat was enough to melt a piece of rock a few millimeters in diameter. Each year, cosmic radiation striking the upper atmosphere converts about 21 pounds of nitrogen into carbon, also called radiocarbon.
Carbon has a half-life of 5, years. Radiocarbon dating has become much more precise, by using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry AMS , a technique that counts individual carbon atoms.
AMS ages for old carbon specimens are generally about 5, years. In those cases, AMS ages are usually 10— times younger.
Today, argon is produced almost entirely by electron capture in potassium The earth would have to be about 10 10 years old [billion years, twice what evolutionists believe] and the initial 40 K [potassium] content of the earth about times greater than at present Since Cook published that statement, estimates of the amount of 40 K in the earth have increased.
Nevertheless, a glaring contradiction remains. If 40 Ar was produced by a process other than the slow decay of 40 K, as the evidence indicates, then the potassium-argon and argon-argon dating techniques, the most frequently used radiometric dating techniques, 27 become useless, if not deceptive.
Enceladus would need a thousand times its current rock content consisting of the most favorable types of meteorites to explain all the argon In the previous chapter, evidence was given showing that Enceladus and other irregular moons in the solar system are captured asteroids, whose material was expelled from earth by the fountains of the great deep.
Could all that 40 Ar have been produced in the subterranean chamber and expelled as part of the debris? Enceladus also contains too much deuterium—about the same amount as in almost all comets and more than ten times the concentration found in the rest of the solar system.
Potassium is the most abundant radioactive substance in the human body and in every living thing. Yes, your body is slightly radioactive!
Fortunately, potassium decays by expelling an electron beta decay which is not very penetrating. While only one ten-thousandth of the potassium in living things is potassium, most has already decayed, so living things were at greater risk in the past.
How could life have evolved if it had been radioactive? That question also applies for the rare radioactive isotopes in the chemical elements that are in DNA, such as carbon DNA is the most complex material known.
The answer to this question is simple. Zircons are tiny, durable crystals about twice the thickness of a human hair.
If this is true, zircons are extremely old. For example, hundreds of zircons found in Western Australia would be 4. Most evolutionists find this puzzling, because they have claimed that the earth was largely molten prior to 3.
These microdiamonds apparently formed 1 under unusual geological conditions, and 2 under extremely high, and perhaps sudden, pressures before the zircons encased them.
Helium Retention in Zircons. Uranium and thorium usually decay by emitting alpha particles. Each alpha particle is a helium nucleus that quickly attracts two electrons and becomes a helium atom 4 He.
The helium gas produced in zircons by uranium and thorium decay should diffuse out relatively quickly, because helium does not combine chemically with other atoms, and it is extremely small—the second smallest of all elements by mass, and the smallest by volume!
Some zircons would be 1. But based on the rapid diffusion of helium out of zircons, the lead would have been produced in the last 4,—8, years 40 —a clear contradiction, suggesting that at least one time in the past, rates were faster.
Helium-3 3 H e. Ejected alpha particles, as stated above, quickly become 4 He, which constitutes Only nuclear reactions produce 3 He, the remaining 0.
Today, no nuclear reactions are known to produce 3 He inside the earth. Only the hydroplate theory explains how nuclear reactions produced 3 He at one time during the flood inside the solid earth in the fluttering crust.
Because nuclear reactions that produce 3 He are not known to be occurring inside the earth, some evolutionists say that 3 He must have been primordial—present before the earth evolved.
Therefore, 3 He, they say, was trapped in the infalling meteoritic material that formed the earth. But helium does not combine chemically with anything, so how did such a light, volatile gas get inside meteorites?
If helium was trapped in falling meteorites, why did it not quickly escape or bubble out when meteorites supposedly crashed into the molten, evolving earth?
During the earthquake, the water alongside the chains was full of little bubbles; the breaking of them sounded like red-hot iron put into water. The three New Madrid Earthquakes — , centered near New Madrid, Missouri, were some of the largest earthquakes ever to strike the United States.
Although relatively few people observed and documented them, the reports we do have are harrowing. Louis, gleams and flashes of light were frequently visible around the horizon in different directions, generally ascending from the earth.
In Livingston County, the atmosphere previous to the shock of February 8, contained remarkable, luminous objects visible for considerable distances, although there was no moon.
It was broad and expanded, reaching from the zenith on every side toward the horizon. It exhibited no flashes, but, as long as it lasted, was a diffused illumination of the atmosphere on all sides.
Their continuance was several hours; their size as large as a house on fire; the motion of the blaze was quite visible, but no sparks appeared.
Why are many large earthquakes accompanied by so much electrical activity? Are frightened people hallucinating? Do electrical phenomena cause earthquakes, or do earthquakes cause electrical activity?
Maybe something else produces both electrical activity and earthquakes. In , some scientists recognized that just the heat from the radioactivity in the granite crust should explain all the heat now coming out of the earth.
If radioactivity were occurring below the crust, even more heat should be exiting. Later, holes drilled into the ocean floor showed slightly more heat coming up through the ocean floors than through the continents.
But basaltic rocks under the ocean floor contain little radioactivity. However, the rate at which temperatures increased with depth was so great that if the trend continued, the rock at the top of the mantle would be partially melted.
Seismic studies have shown that this is not the case. A third measurement technique, used in regions of the United States and Australia, shows a strange, but well-verified, correlation: Wherever radioactivity is high, the heat flow will usually be high; wherever radioactivity is low, the heat flow will usually be low.
However, the radioactivity at those hotter locations is far too small to account for that heat. First, consider what it does not necessarily mean.
When two sets of measurements correlate or correspond , people often mistakenly conclude that one of the things measured such as radioactivity in surface rocks at one location caused the other thing being measured surface heat flow at that location.
Even experienced researchers sometimes make this mistake. Students of statistics are repeatedly warned of this common mistake in logic, and hundreds of humorous 50 and tragic examples are given; nevertheless, the problem abounds in all research fields.
If more heat is coming out of the ground at one place, then more radioactivity was also produced there. Therefore, radioactivity in surface rocks would correlate with surface heat flow.
The earth did not evolve. Had supernovas spewed out radioisotopes in our part of the galaxy, radioactivity would be spread evenly throughout the earth, not concentrated in continental granite.
The earth was never molten. Had the earth ever been molten, the denser elements and minerals such as uranium and zircons would have sunk toward the center of the earth.
Reactors generate heat by the controlled fission of certain isotopes, such as uranium U. For some unknown reason, 0. This enrichment is both expensive and technically difficult.
Controlling the reactor is a second requirement. When a neutron splits a U nucleus, heat and typically two or three other neutrons are released.
If the U is sufficiently concentrated and, on average, exactly one of those two or three neutrons fissions another U nucleus, the reaction continues and is said to be critical —or self-sustaining.
If this delicate situation can be maintained, considerable heat from binding energy is steadily released, usually for years.
There, they discovered depleted partially consumed U in isolated zones. Many fission products from U were mixed with the depleted U but found nowhere else.
Nuclear engineers, aware of just how difficult it is to design and build a nuclear reactor, are amazed by what they believe was a naturally occurring reactor.
But notice, we do not know that a self-sustaining, critical reactor operated at Oklo. All we know is that considerable U has fissioned.
How could this have happened? That is, for every neutrons produced by U fission, 99 or fewer other neutrons were produced in the next fission cycle, an instant later.
The nuclear reaction would quickly die down; i. However, suppose as will soon be explained many free neutrons frequently appeared somewhere in the uranium ore layer.
Although the nuclear reaction would not be self-sustaining, the process would multiply the number of neutrons available to fission U. Too many neutrons would have escaped or been absorbed by all the nonfissioning material called poisons mixed in with the uranium.
Second, one zone lies 30 kilometers from the other zones. Whatever strange events at Oklo depleted U in 16 largely separated zones was probably common to that region of Africa and not to some specific topography.
Uranium deposits are found in many diverse regions worldwide, and yet, only in the Oklo region has this mystery been observed. Third, depleted U was found where it should not be—near the borders of the ore deposit, where neutrons would tend to escape, instead of fission U.
Had Oklo been a reactor, depleted U should be concentrated near the center of the ore body. Fourth, at Oklo, the ratio of U to U in uranium ore, which should be about 0.
Harms has explained that this wide variation. Harms also explained why rapid spikes in temperature and nuclear power would produce a wide range in the ratios of U to U over very short distances.
The question which will soon be answered is, what could have caused those spikes? An alpha particle shot from a radioisotope inside a rock acts like a tiny bullet crashing through the surrounding crystalline structure.
For example, U, after a series of eight alpha decays and six much less-damaging beta decays , will become lead Pb.
Therefore, eight concentric spheres, each with a slightly different color, will surround what was a point concentration of a billion U atoms. Under a microscope, those radiohalos look like the rings of a tiny onion.
Radiohalos from the U Decay Series. Suppose many U atoms were concentrated at the point of radioactivity shown here. Each U atom eventually ejects one alpha particle in a random direction, but at the specific velocity corresponding to 4.
That energy determines the distance traveled, so each alpha particle from U ends up at the gray spherical shell shown above.
Alpha particles from daughter isotopes will travel to different shells. Each sharply defined halo requires the ejection of about a billion alpha particles from the common center of all halos, because each alpha particle leaves such a thin path of destruction.
A U atom becomes U after the alpha decay and two less-damaging beta decays. Later, that U atom expels an alpha particle with 4. As a billion U atoms decay, a sharp U halo forms.
While we might expect all eight halos to be nested have a common center as shown above, G. Henderson made a surprising discovery 64 in Since then, the mystery has deepened, and possible explanations have generated heated controversy.
Thorium Th and U also occur naturally in rocks, and each begins a different decay series that produces different polonium isotopes.
However, only the U series produces isolated polonium halos. Why are isolated polonium halos in the U decay series but not in other decay series?
If the earth is 4. Why then is U still around, how did it get here, what concentrated it, and where is all the lead that the U decay series should have produced?
We can think of the eight alpha decays from U to Pb as producing the nine rungs on a generational ladder. The last three alpha decays 60 are of the chemical element polonium Po: Their half-lives are extremely short: Surprisingly, polonium radiohalos are often found without their parents—or any other prior generation!
How could that be? Polonium is always a decay product. It must have had parents! Notice that Rn is on the rung immediately above the three polonium isotopes, but the Rn halo is missing.
Because Rn decays with a half-life of only 3. Furthermore, any polonium in the molten rock would have decayed long before the liquid could cool enough to solidify.
Therefore, we can all see that those rocks did not cool and solidify over eons, as commonly taught! However, Gentry believes, incorrectly , that on Day 1 of the creation, a billion or so polonium atoms were concentrated at each of many points in rock; then, within days, the polonium decayed and formed isolated parentless halos.
Second, to form a distinct Po halo, those Po atoms, must undergo heat-releasing alpha decays, half of which would occur within 3.
The great heat generated in such a tiny volume in just 3. Third, polonium has 33 known radioisotopes, but only three Po, Po, and Po account for almost all the isolated polonium halos.
Those three are produced only by the U decay series, and U deposits are often found near isolated polonium halos.
Why would only those three isotopes be created instantly on Day 1? Instead, something produced by only the U decay series accounts for the isolated polonium halos.
Fourth, Henderson and Sparks, while doing their pioneering work on isolated polonium halos in , made an important discovery: In most cases it appears that they [the centers of the isolated halos] are concentrated in planes parallel to the plane of cleavage.
When a book of biotite is split into thin leaves, most of the latter will be blank until a certain depth is reached, when signs of halos become manifest.
A number of halos will then be found in a central section in a single leaf, while the leaves on either side of it show off-centre sections of the same halos.
The same mode of occurrence is often found at intervals within the book. This implies that polonium atoms or their Rn parent flowed along what is now the central sheet and lodged in the channel wall as that mineral sheet grew.
In other words, the polonium was not created on Day 1 inside solid rock. Fifth, isolated polonium halos are often found near uranium mines, where magma containing uranium was injected up through fossil bearing strata.
Therefore the intrusions and polonium halos obviously came after the flood, which itself was long after creation.
The magma slowly cooled and solidified, while the uranium began releasing Rn that was quickly dissolved and transported upward in flowing water.
The polonium daughters of Rn, produced the parentless polonium halos. Richard Wakefield, who offered to show me a similar intrusion.
The site was near a uranium mine, about miles to the northeast near Bancroft, Ontario, where Bob Gentry had obtained some samples of isolated polonium halos.
I accepted and called my friend Bob Gentry to invite him to join us. Several days later, he flew in from Tennessee and, along with an impartial geologist who specialized in that region of Ontario, we went to the mine.
Although we could not gain access into the mine, we all agreed that the intrusion cut up through the sedimentary layers. Gentry concluded while we were there and in later writings 68 that the sedimentary layers with solid intrusions must have been created supernaturally with Po, Po, and Po already present but no other polonium isotopes present.
Then the Po, Po, and Po decayed minutes or days later. Unfortunately, I had to disagree with my friend; the heat generated would have melted the entire halo.
Collins has a different explanation for the polonium mystery. He first made several perceptive observations. The rock that contains these wormlike patterns is called myrmekite [MUR-muh-kite].
Myrmekites have intrigued geologists and mineralogists since Collins admits that he does not know why myrmekite is associated with isolated polonium halos in granites.
Collins notes that those halos all seem to be near uranium deposits and tend to be in two minerals biotite and fluorite in granitic pegmatites [PEG-muh-tites] and in biotite in granite when myrmekites are present.
Biotite, fluorite, and pegmatites form out of hot water solutions in cracks in rocks. Because radon is inert, it can move freely through solid cracks without combining chemically with minerals lining the walls of those cracks.
Collins insights end there, but they raise six questions. What was the source of all that hot, flowing water, and how could it flow so rapidly up through rock?
Why was the water Rn rich? Because halos are found in different geologic periods, did all this remarkable activity occur repeatedly, but at intervals of millions of years?
What concentrated a billion or so Po atoms at each microscopic speck that became the center of an isolated polonium halo? Were these microscopic specks the favored resting places for Po for billions of years, or did the decay rate of U somehow spike just before all that hot water flowed?
Remember, Po decays today with a half-life of only 3. Why are isolated polonium halos associated with parallel and aligned myrmekite that resembles tiny ant tunnels?
Robert Gentry made several major discoveries concerning radiohalos, such as elliptical halos in coalified wood from the Rocky Mountains.
In one case, he found a spherical Po halo superimposed on an elliptical Po halo. Then, the partially depleted Po whose half-life is days finished its decay, forming the spherical halo.
Mineralogists have found, at many places on earth, radial stress fractures surrounding certain minerals that experienced extensive alpha decays.
Halos were not seen, because billions of decaying radioisotopes were not concentrated at microscopic points. Ramdohr, a famous German mineralogist, observed that these surrounding fractures did not occur, as one would expect, along grain boundaries or along planes of weakness.
Instead, the fractures occurred in more random patterns around the expanded material. Ramdohr noted that if the expansion had been slow, only a few cracks—all along surfaces of weakness—would be seen.
Alpha decays within this inclusion caused it to expand significantly, radially fracturing the surrounding zircon that was ten times the diameter of a human hair.
These fractures were not along grain boundaries or other surfaces of weakness, as one would expect. Mineralogist Paul Ramdohr concluded that the expansion was explosive.
Pegmatites are rocks with large crystals, typically one inch to several feet in size. Pegmatites appear to have crystallized from hot, watery mixtures containing some chemical components of nearby granite.
These mixtures penetrated large, open fractures in the granite where they slowly cooled and solidified. What Herculean force produced the fractures?
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Equality and tolerance of all religions. Love and respect for each other and compassion towards the downtrodden and. He believed that mere reading of spiritual books was not enough, converting this.
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His path of devotion emphasized Faith and Patience. He did not believe in any major religious rituals, all he wanted was love and devotion.
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